Published on Wednesday, March 22, 2000 in the San Francisco Chronicle
Universal Preschool Movement Picks Up Support Across The Country
by Jacqueline L. Salmon and Kirstin Downey Grimsley
ATLANTA -- Lisa Fair, a top executive in consulting firm Arthur Andersen's tax division, was pleased to learn that Georgia was rolling out a pioneering plan to provide free preschool to 4-year-olds from lower-income families. ``I feel like you should give each kid some equal opportunity,'' said the mother of three.
Her interest soared, though, when she learned a few years ago that the program was being expanded to all families, regardless of income, paid for with proceeds from a state lottery. Her daughter, Rachel, 4, now attends a free 6 1/2-hour program daily, where she has learned her ABCs, plays in the sandbox and does simple science experiments.
``I'm really blown away,'' said Fair, 38, as Rachel and her classmates excitedly shouted out answers to questions about the stars and planets one day recently. ``I believe so much that this is the right answer to quick-start our educational system. We haven't done everything in Georgia we should -- by far -- but this program is so valuable.''
Georgia's ambitious undertaking -- more than 70 percent of the state's 4-year-olds are now enrolled -- is but one indicator of the growing interest among states to offer extensive preschool programs to prepare youngsters for the demands of kindergarten and beyond.
The preschool movement is spreading across the country, much as the kindergarten concept caught fire in the United States at the turn of the century.
Forty-two states offer free or subsidized preschool, and enrollment has swelled to 750,000 children, according to a recent study by the Children's Defense Fund, an advocacy group. State spending on prekindergarten programs topped $1.5 billion last year, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, up from $180 million in 1987.
While many of these programs are designed for poor children, a few states are following Georgia's lead, opening them to all children, regardless of income or neighborhood.
Oklahoma and New York are among those starting to make preschool universal. New Jersey has the ambitious goal of enrolling 44,000 of its poorest children in preschools, and state officials say the program will continue to grow.
Connecticut is at the midpoint of a five-year ``school readiness'' plan that has enrolled 6,500 children in all-day programs so far; officials hope to include all 3- and 4-year-olds eventually.
Delaine Eastin, state superintendent of public instruction for California, has proposed spending $5 billion to offer preschool for the state's 1.1 million 3- and 4-year-olds.
``Universal preschool is one of the most important things that our nation can do for our children,'' Eastin said. ``It will give them a firm foundation that allows them to be successful in school and, ultimately, in life.''
Optional preschool is on the table in several states, including Maryland, which already has a state-funded program for 11,000 low-income 4-year-olds. A coalition of legislators and state officials proposes to expand it to cover all 4-year-olds.
Supporters acknowledge little chance of approval for the $75 million initiative this year, but say they hope to spark discussion of the idea to gain support down the road.
Virginia has 6,100 children enrolled in a 5-year-old preschool initiative designed for at-risk children. The program, which costs about $18 million a year, takes place in Head Start centers, private schools and child care centers.
For years, the federal government has subsidized prekindergarten education for economically disadvantaged children through programs such as Head Start. But the funding covers only a portion of those eligible, and parents with moderate or above-average incomes have had to pay for private preschools or keep their children home until kindergarten.
Some studies suggest that disadvantaged 3- and 4-year-olds who participate in good preschool programs reap the benefits for years.
A study at the University of North Carolina that for two decades tracked disadvantaged children -- some who attended an intensive child care program and others from a regular program -- found that those in the former group were more likely to attend college, hold jobs and delay parenthood.
Another study, started in Michigan in the 1960s with 3-year-olds, obtained similar results.
The preschool issue has caught the attention of the presidential candidates. A cornerstone of Vice President Al Gore's campaign is a proposal to spend $50 billion on free preschool for all of the country's 4-year-olds. On the Republican side, Texas Gov. George W. Bush, whose state increased prekindergarten spending 30 percent in the 1990s to $235 million, has proposed revamping Head Start to emphasize academics.
Preschool programs are costly, as even their supporters admit. Thus far, only Georgia has a fully funded program for all 4-year-olds whose families want them to go.
Some critics say the programs force taxpayers to foot the bill for working parents to have free child care, while others point to research suggesting that benefits of preschool fade in a few years.
Darcy Olsen, director of education and child policy at the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank in Washington, said most children do not need preschool.
``I question the premise that there is an overwhelming unpreparedness -- that kids are spending the ages of 0 through 5 doing nothing, and then go through some sort of shock when they get to kindergarten,'' she said. ``I just don't see the evidence for that at all.''
©2000 San Francisco Chronicle