The Progressive


A project of Common Dreams

For Immediate Release

Sara Sciammacco; 202-667-6982

EWG Meat Eater's Guide Spotlights Meat's Outsize Carbon Footprint

Report Finds Wide Variation in Environmental, Health Impacts of Foods


The Environmental Working Group today released its groundbreaking Meat Eater's Guide to Climate Change and Health, a powerful, multi-featured tool that allows both consumers and experts to understand easily how food choices affect both their environmental footprint and their health.

Taking into account every stage of food production, processing, consumption and waste disposal, the guide documents in unprecedented detail how consumers who eat less meat and cheese can significantly reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and health risks linked to their dietary choices. Previous studies have focused mostly on emissions from the food production phase only.

The calculations reveal that if everyone in the U.S. ate no meat or cheese just one day a week, over a year, the effect on emissions would be the equivalent of taking 7.6 million cars off the road.

The research also highlights the surprisingly large environmental impact of meat that goes into the trash, which accounts for more than 20 percent of all meat-associated emissions.

"By eating and wasting less meat, consumers can help limit the environmental damage caused by the huge amounts of fertilizer, fuel, water, and pesticides, not to mention the toxic manure and wastewater, that goes along with producing meat," said Kari Hamerschlag, EWG senior analyst and author of the report. "Choosing healthier, pasture-raised meats can also help improve people's health and reduce the environmental damage associated with meat consumption."

Mario Batali, chef, restaurateur, award-winning author, and television personality, said, "The fact is, most people in the U.S. eat way more meat than is good for them or the planet, but even knowing this, the chances are little that we are all going to become vegetarians, much less vegan. Asking everyone to go vegetarian or vegan is not a realistic or attainable goal, but we can focus on a more plant-based diet and support the farmers who raise their animals humanely and sustainably. This is why I am such a big believer in the Meatless Monday Movement and the Environmental Working Group's Meat Eaters Guide to Climate Change and Health."

The study points to abundant research showing how eating large quantities of beef and processed meats increases exposure to toxins and increases the risk of heart disease, cancer, and obesity.

EWG teamed up with CleanMetrics, an environmental analysis and consulting firm, to calculate complete lifecycle assessments of the "cradle-to-grave" carbon footprint of 20 types of conventionally raised (not organic or grass-fed) meat, fish, dairy and vegetable proteins, counting emissions generated both before and after the food leaves the farm. These assessments included every step of the food cycle, from the pesticides and fertilizers used to grow animal feed through to the grazing, processing, transportation, cooking and finally, disposal of unused food.

Other key findings of the report:

  • Beef generates more than twice the emissions of pork, nearly four times that of chicken, and more than 13 times that of vegetable proteins such as beans, lentils, and tofu.
  • Cheese has the third-highest emissions. Less dense cheese (such as cottage) results in fewer greenhouse gases since it takes less milk to produce it.
  • 90 percent of beef's emissions, 69 percent of pork's, 72 percent of salmon's and 68 percent of tuna's are generated in the production phase. Just half of chicken's emissions are generated during production.

"The report also points out that making significant cuts in emissions will not come solely from individual action, but also citizen action," said Ken Cook, EWG's President. "Consumers need to convince Washington to enact comprehensive policies that put the nation on a path to green energy. Reducing meat production's negative impact on soil, air and water quality will also require better policies and regulatory enforcement as well as curbing meat consumption."

EWG recommends that consumers buy right-size portions to reduce waste, avoid eating meat and cheese at least one day a week and choose "greener" options such as grass-fed, organic and pasture-raised animal and dairy products that are produced in a more ethical manner and without antibiotics or hormones.

To make the report and findings as widely useful as possible, EWG's Meat Eater's Guide website includes a variety of consumer-friendly features, including an interactive graphic, an available printed wallet card and brochure that summarize the results, consumer tips, a quiz and a guide to decoding the maze of labels on meat other food products.


Leading chefs, authors and health experts are praising EWG's Meat Eater's Guide and support the consumer recommendations. Find their testimony and the full report at EWG's website.

The Environmental Working Group is a community 30 million strong, working to protect our environmental health by changing industry standards.

(202) 667-6982