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Nigeria: Protect Anti-Corruption Czar

Campaigner Threatened; Government Anti-Corruption Efforts Falter

LAGOS, Nigeria

Nigeria's leading anti-corruption campaigner has in recent weeks
been subject to an escalating campaign of harassment, threats, and an
apparent attempt on his life, Human Rights Watch said today. Human
Rights Watch called on the Nigerian government to protect the
campaigner, Nuhu Ribadu, former chairman of Nigeria's Economic and
Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).

In an interview with Human Rights Watch in Nigeria, Ribadu, a
long-serving police official, said he feared for his life and believed
the threats against him - including shots fired at him in late
September and telephoned death threats - were linked to his work at the
EFCC. "I fear for my life," Ribadu told Human Rights Watch. "I have
made a lot of enemies." He was removed from his position in December
2007 after the commission arrested and indicted on corruption charges a
powerful politician who was known to be close to the president.

"The campaign of intimidation against Mr. Ribadu appears aimed at
silencing a key voice in the crucial fight against corruption in
Nigeria," said Georgette Gagnon, Africa director at Human Rights Watch.
"The Nigerian government and President Yar'Adua need to protect Ribadu
and anyone else who dares to speak out against the corrupt and

During his tenure at the EFCC - from 2003 to 2007 - Ribadu pursued
politically sensitive investigations into suspected corrupt activities
of powerful ruling-party officials, though the institution's
credibility was at times tarnished by its apparent selective
prosecution of political opponents of then-president Olusegun Obasanjo.
The EFCC under Ribadu indicted hundreds of individuals collectively
implicated in the theft of several billion dollars. These included a
former inspector general of police, several former state governors, and
politically influential businessmen.

Despite pledges to allow the EFCC to pursue an impartial
"zero-tolerance" effort to pursue corrupt officials, the government of
President Umaru Yar'Adua - now in its second year - has seriously
undermined the fledgling anti-corruption efforts that began under his

Ribadu described to Human Rights Watch the apparent attempt on his
life in late September, while he was driving from Jos to Abuja, the
capital: "At around 6:00 that morning, I noticed a car with about four
men in it following me. I stopped at a filling station and it passed
me, but some minutes later, I saw the car coming toward me from the
other direction. As the vehicle approached, a man in the back opened
fire on my vehicle with a pistol. The three bullets which hit my car
cracked a part of my windscreen, broke the side-view mirror, and hit a
side panel on the car." Ribadu was unhurt in the incident.

More recently, Ribadu said he had received credible information
about another planned attempt on his life. He also said he has received
threatening phone calls in which he is advised to "say his last
prayers." "The harassment, the intimidation is meant to put fear in me,
to break me, but I am going to stand and continue standing," he told
Human Rights Watch.

In December 2007, the EFCC sent shock waves through the political
establishment by arresting the powerful former Delta State governor
James Ibori and charging him with 103 counts of corruption, including
an alleged attempt to bribe Ribadu with US$15 million in cash to drop
the case against him. The EFCC's decision to prosecute Ibori was
notable because the former governor was widely seen as politically
untouchable. He is among the wealthiest politicians in Nigeria and is
known to be a close associate of Yar'Adua. Two weeks later, the
inspector general of police ordered Ribadu to resign and attend a
10-month police training course.

In August 2008, Ribadu was demoted from the rank of assistant
inspector general of police, on the grounds that promotions he received
while at the EFCC had failed to comply with police procedure. On
November 22 he was forcefully removed by state security agents from the
graduation ceremony that followed the course he was ordered to attend.

In November, he was officially informed of his future posting to a
regional police headquarters in Edo State, with duties that would
require working in Edo, Delta, and Bayelsa states. Ribadu firmly
believes this posting would leave him vulnerable because the powerful
former governors from all three of these states were investigated,
charged, or convicted of corruption by the Ribadu-led EFCC. Ribadu is
also a material witness in the corruption trial against Ibori, should
it take place.

Following the appointment of Farida Waziri as the new EFCC chair in
May, the commission sacked at least 12 of its top investigators.
Several were later reassigned to the states whose governors they had
investigated. In February 2008, a senior EFCC official was attacked by
armed thugs. In August, the former head of the unit investigating Ibori
was arrested and held without charge for several weeks. Judicial
personnel and other political observers interviewed by Human Rights
Watch said certain actions by the attorney general have undermined
anti-corruption efforts both in Nigeria and in the United Kingdom,
including intervening on behalf of Ibori in a British court case
involving Ibori's alleged embezzlement and money laundering of US$35
million of Delta State funds.

Although Waziri has indicted several senior-level politicians,
including three former governors and the head of the Nigerian Ports
Authority, on corruption charges, the high-profile cases initiated
under Ribadu, including that of Ibori, have been effectively stalled.
Meanwhile, the EFCC has initiated an investigation into Ribadu's
acquisition of property - a move considered by many observers to be
politically motivated. Ribadu has on several occasions publicly
declared his assets.

Nigeria, the world's eighth-largest oil exporter, suffers from
rampant government corruption and mismanagement, which has led to gross
violations of the right to basic health care and education. Despite
Nigeria's tremendous wealth, its abject poverty ranks among the worst
in the world. Public funds that could have been spent on improving the
lives of ordinary citizens have instead been squandered and stolen by members of Nigeria's political elite.

Corruption also lies at the heart of Nigeria's most pressing human
rights problems. Many politicians have used stolen government revenues
to sponsor
political violence in order to rig elections marked by violence and
fraud. Nigeria's compromised police force has consistently turned a
blind eye to these and other abuses by well-connected politicians.

Human Rights Watch is one of the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights. By focusing international attention where human rights are violated, we give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes. Our rigorous, objective investigations and strategic, targeted advocacy build intense pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse. For 30 years, Human Rights Watch has worked tenaciously to lay the legal and moral groundwork for deep-rooted change and has fought to bring greater justice and security to people around the world.