Global human rights group Amnesty International on Friday called for accountability \u0022up the chain of command\u0022 in Russia for war crimes the organization says it has documented in extensive interviews and on-the-ground research in Ukraine.\r\n\r\n\u0022Hierarchal superiors... who knew or had reason to know about war crimes committed by their forces, but did not attempt to stop them or punish those responsible, should also be held criminally responsible.\u0022\r\n\r\nThe group\u0026#039;s new report, titled \u0022He\u0026#039;s Not Coming Back\u0022: War Crimes in Northwest Areas of Kyiv Oblast, was released Friday and based on dozens of interviews with survivors of Russian attacks in several towns outside the Ukrainian capital, as well as reviews of material evidence.\r\n\r\nThe research by Amnesty\u0026#039;s delegation has taken place over the last several days and has revealed a \u0022pattern of crimes committed by Russian forces\u0022 including \u0022both unlawful attacks and willful killings of civilians,\u0022 according to Secretary General Agnès Callamard.\r\n\r\n\u0022We have met families whose loved ones were killed in horrific attacks, and whose lives have changed forever because of the Russian invasion,\u0022 Callamard said in a statement. \u0022It is vital that all those responsible, including up the chain of command, are brought to justice.\u0022\r\n\r\nThe group conducted its research in towns including Bucha—where Russian forces were accused of carrying out a \u0022deliberate massacre\u0022 of more than 100 people last month—Borodyanka, Zdvyzhivka, and Novyi Korohod.\r\n\r\nResidents of Borodyanka described a series of air strikes on March 1 and 2, days after the Russians invaded Ukraine, which hit eight residential buildings and killed at least 40 people as well as leaving thousands homeless.\r\n\r\nLaurie Hanna, part of Amnesty\u0026#039;s Crisis Response team, shared a video documenting the damage done to Borodyanka:\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\u0022I left my apartment to go do some work in the garage, as my wife was about to take a couple of older neighbors down to the basement,\u0022 Vasyl Yaroshenko told Amnesty. \u0022When I reached the garage, about 150 meters from the building, there was a huge explosion. I ducked behind the garage. When I looked, I saw a large gap in the building. The whole middle section of the building had collapsed—exactly where residents were sheltering in the basement. My wife Halina was among those killed. I still see her by the door of our apartment, the home where we lived for 40 years.\u0022\r\n\r\nThe group verified the reports of the attacks with 39 people who had witnessed or had firsthand knowledge of the bombings.\r\n\r\n\u0022No fixed Ukrainian military targets are known to have been located at or around any of the buildings which were struck,\u0022 said Amnesty. \u0022Knowingly launching direct attacks on civilian objects or disproportionate attacks constitute war crimes.\u0022\r\n\r\nA series of airstrikes also targeted six other buildings on Tsentralna Street in Borodyanka, according to the report. In Building 371, the victims included 39-year-old surgeon Vitali Smishchuk, his wife Tetiana, and their four-year-old daughter Yeva.\r\n\r\n\u0022I was speaking to my son and telling him to leave, but he was worried about going outside,\u0022 Smishchuk\u0026#039;s mother, Ludmila, told Amnesty. \u0022They sheltered in the basement for safety—but the bomb destroyed the middle section of the building, where the basement was.\u0022\r\n\r\nThe Crisis Response team also spoke to 45 people who had direct knowledge of unlawful killings including extrajudicial executions in towns including Bucha.\r\n\r\nOlena Sakhno of Novyi Korohod, 70 kilometers west of Kyiv, described the killing of her partner.\r\n\r\n\u0022His hands were tied behind his back with a piece of white plastic, and he had been shot in the head,\u0022 Sakhno said.\r\n\r\nThe investigators\u0026#039; in-depth research included identifying bullets and cartridge cases found at the scenes of killings. In Bucha, researchers documented \u0022black-tipped 7N12 armor-piercing 9x39mm rounds that can only be fired by specialized rifles used by some elite Russian units, including units reported to have been operating in Bucha during this time.\u0022\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nSome evidence reviewed by Amnesty showed signs that victims of unlawful killings by the Russians had been tortured.\r\n\r\nThe group\u0026#039;s report follows the first war crimes charges filed by Ukrainian prosecutors last week, regarding the killings in Bucha. Authorities have accused 10 Russian soldiers of torturing civilians and taking them hostage in the town.\r\n\r\n\u0022No fixed Ukrainian military targets are known to have been located at or around any of the buildings which were struck. Knowingly launching direct attacks on civilian objects or disproportionate attacks constitute war crimes.\u0022\r\n\r\nCallamard said Amnesty supports surviving family members\u0026#039; \u0022demands for justice, and [calls] on the Ukrainian authorities, the International Criminal Court, and others to ensure evidence is preserved that could support future war crime prosecutions.\u0022\r\n\r\nThe report also comes a day after United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet addressed the U.N. Security Council, demanding greater protection for Ukrainian civilians and renewed efforts to establish a ceasefire.\r\n\r\nThe U.N.\u0026#039;s Human Rights Monitoring Mission, Bachelet said, has also found evidence of \u0022violations that may amount to war crimes\u0022 by Russian forces.\r\n\r\nThe mission has heard accounts of sexual violence being used as a weapon of war \u0022by both parties of the conflict,\u0022 the high commissioner said.\r\n\r\n\u0022Grim evidence of torture, ill-treatment, and summary executions of prisoners of war committed by both parties to the conflict is surfacing,\u0022 Bachelet told the Security Council. \u0022The only way for these horrors to stop is for armed forces to fully respect their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law.\u0022\r\n\r\nAmnesty demanded that international authorities hold the Russians accountable for alleged war crimes and ensure that those in positions of power—not just those who carried out orders—are held \u0022criminally responsible.\u0022\r\n\r\n\u0022Under the doctrine of command responsibility, hierarchal superiors—including commanders and civilian leaders, such as ministers and heads of state—who knew or had reason to know about war crimes committed by their forces, but did not attempt to stop them or punish those responsible, should also be held criminally responsible,\u0022 said the organization.