After Religion Fizzles, We're Stuck with Nietzsche

It is hard to muster much sympathy over the implosion of the Catholic Church, traditional Protestant denominations or Jewish synagogues. These institutions were passive as the Christian right, which peddles magical thinking and a Jesus-as-warrior philosophy, hijacked the language and iconography of traditional Christianity. They have busied themselves with the boutique activism of the culture wars. They have failed to unequivocally denounce unfettered capitalism, globalization and pre-emptive war. The obsession with personal piety and "How-is-it-with-me?" spirituality that permeates most congregations is undiluted narcissism. And while the Protestant church and reformed Judaism have not replicated the perfidiousness of the Catholic bishops, who protect child-molesting priests, they have little to say in an age when we desperately need moral guidance.

I grew up in the church and graduated from a seminary. It is an institution whose cruelty, inflicted on my father, who was a Presbyterian minister, I know intimately. I do not attend church. The cloying, feel-your-pain language of the average clergy member makes me run for the door. The debates in most churches--whether revolving around homosexuality or biblical interpretation--are a waste of energy. I have no desire to belong to any organization, religious or otherwise, which discriminates, nor will I spend my time trying to convince someone that the raw anti-Semitism in the Gospel of John might not be the word of God. It makes no difference to me if Jesus existed or not. There is no historical evidence that he did. Fairy tales about heaven and hell, angels, miracles, saints, divine intervention and God's beneficent plan for us are repeatedly mocked in the brutality and indiscriminate killing in war zones, where I witnessed children murdered for sport and psychopathic gangsters elevated to demigods. The Bible works only as metaphor.

The institutional church, when it does speak, mutters pious non-statements that mean nothing. "Given the complexity of factors involved, many of which understandably remain confidential, it is altogether appropriate for members of our armed forces to presume the integrity of our leadership and its judgments, and therefore to carry out their military duties in good conscience," Archbishop Edwin F. O'Brien, head of the Archdiocese for the Military Services, wrote about the Iraq war. The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, on the eve of the invasion, told believers that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was a menace, and that reasonable people could disagree about the necessity of using force to overthrow him. It assured those who supported the war that God would not object.

B'nai B'rith supported a congressional resolution to authorize the 2003 attack on Iraq. The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, which represents Reform Judaism, agreed it would back unilateral action, as long as Congress approved and the president sought support from other nations. The National Council of Churches, which represents 36 different faith groups, in a typical bromide, urged President George W. Bush to "do all possible" to avoid war with Iraq and to stop "demonizing adversaries or enemies" with good-versus-evil rhetoric, but, like the other liberal religious institutions, did not condemn the war.

A Gallup poll in 2006 found that "the more frequently an American attends church, the less likely he or she is to say the war was a mistake." Given that Jesus was a pacifist, and given that all of us who graduated from seminary rigorously studied Just War doctrine, which was flagrantly violated by the invasion of Iraq, this is a rather startling statistic.

But I cannot rejoice in the collapse of these institutions. We are not going to be saved by faith in reason, science and technology, which the dead zone of oil forming in the Gulf of Mexico and our production of costly and redundant weapons systems illustrate. Frederick Nietzsche's Ubermensch, or "Superman"--our secular religion--is as fantasy-driven as religious magical thinking.

There remain, in spite of the leaders of these institutions, religiously motivated people toiling in the inner city and the slums of the developing world. They remain true to the core religious and moral values ignored by these institutions. The essential teachings of the monotheistic traditions are now lost in the muck of church dogma, hollow creeds and the banal bureaucracy of institutional religion. These teachings helped create the concept of the individual. The belief that we can exist as distinct beings from the tribe, or the crowd, and that we are called on as individuals to make moral decisions that can defy the clamor of the nation is one of the gifts of religious thought. This call for individual responsibility is coupled with the constant injunctions in Islam, Judaism and Christianity for compassion, especially for the weak, the impoverished, the sick and the outcast.

We are rapidly losing the capacity for the moral life. We reject the anxiety of individual responsibility that laid the foundations for the open society. We are enjoined, after all, to love our neighbor, not our tribe. This empowerment of individual conscience was the starting point of the great ethical systems of all civilizations. Those who championed this radical individualism, from Confucius to Socrates to Jesus, fostered not obedience and conformity, but dissent and self-criticism. They initiated the separation of individual responsibility from the demands of the state. They taught that culture and society were not the sole prerogative of the powerful, that freedom and indeed the religious and moral life required us to often oppose and challenge those in authority, even at great personal cost. Immanuel Kant built his ethics upon this radical individualism. And Kant's injunction to "always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as mere means" runs in a direct line from the Socratic ideal and the Christian Gospels.

The great religions set free the critical
powers of humankind. They broke with the older Greek and Roman
traditions that gods and Destiny ruled human fate-a belief that, when
challenged by Socrates, saw him condemned to death. They challenged the
power of the tribe, the closed society. They offered up the possibility
that human beings, although limited by circumstance and human weakness,
could shape and give direction to society and their own lives. These
religious thinkers were our first ethicists. And it is perhaps not
accidental that the current pope, as well as the last one, drove out of
the Catholic Church thousands of clergy and religious leaders who
embodied these qualities, elevating the dregs to positions of
leadership and leaving the pedophiles to run the Sunday schools.

These religious institutions are in
irreversible decline. They are ruled by moral and intellectual trolls.
They have become arrogant and self-absorbed. Their sins are many. They
protected criminals. They pandered to the lowest common denominator and
illusions of personal fulfillment and surrendered their moral
authority. They did not fight the corporate tyrants who have
impoverished us. They refused to denounce a caste of Christian heretics
embodied by the Christian right and have, for their cowardice, been
usurped by bizarre proto-fascists clutching the Christian cross. They
have nothing left to say. And their aging congregants, who are fleeing
the church in droves, know it. But don't think the world will be a
better place for their demise.

As we devolve into a commodity culture, in
which celebrity, power and money reign, the older, dimming values of
another era are being replaced. We are becoming objects, consumer
products and marketable commodities. We have no intrinsic value. We are
obsessed with self-presentation. We must remain youthful. We must
achieve notoriety and money or the illusion of it. And it does not
matter what we do to get there. Success, as Goldman Sachs illustrates,
is its own morality. Other people's humiliation, pain and weakness
become the fodder for popular entertainment. Education, building
community, honesty, transparency and sharing see contestants
disappeared from any reality television show or laughed out of any Wall
Street firm.

We live in the age of the "Ubermensch who rejects the sentimental tenets of traditional religion. The Ubermensch
creates his own morality based on human instincts, drive and will. We
worship the "will to power" and think we have gone "beyond good and
evil." We spurn virtue. We think we have the moral fortitude and wisdom
to create our own moral code. The high priests of our new religion run
Wall Street, the Pentagon and the corporate state. They flood our
airwaves with the tawdry and the salacious. They, too, promise a
utopia. They redefine truth, beauty, morality, desire and goodness. And
we imbibe their poison as blind followers once imbibed the poison of
the medieval church.

had his doubts. He suspected that this new secular faith might
prefigure an endless middle-class charade. Nietzsche feared the
deadening effects of the constant search for material possessions and
personal hedonism. Science and technology might rather bring about a
new, distorted character Nietzsche called "the Last Man."
The Last Man, Nietzsche feared, would engage in the worst kinds of
provincialism, believing he had nothing to learn from history. The Last
Man would wallow and revel in his ignorance and quest for personal
fulfillment. He would be satisfied with everything that he had done and
become, and would seek to become nothing more. He would be
intellectually and morally stagnant, incapable of growth, and become
part of an easily manipulated herd. The Last Man would mistake cynicism
for knowledge.

"The time is coming when man will give
birth to no more stars," Nietzsche wrote about the Last Man in the
prologue of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra." "Alas! The time of the most
contemptible man is coming, the man who can no longer despise himself."

"They are clever and know everything that
has ever happened: so there is no end to their mockery." The Last Men
indulge in "their little pleasure for the day, and their little
pleasure for the night."

The consumer culture, as Nietzsche feared,
has turned us into what Chalmers Johnson calls a "consumerist Sparta."
The immigrants and the poor, all but invisible to us, work as serfs in
this new temple of greed and imperialism. Curtis White in "The Middle
Mind" argues that most Americans are aware of the brutality and
injustice used to maintain the excesses of their consumer society and
empire. He suspects they do not care. They don't want to see what is
done in their name. They do not want to look at the rows of flag-draped
coffins or the horribly maimed bodies and faces of veterans or the
human suffering in the blighted and deserted former manufacturing
centers. It is too upsetting. Government and corporate censorship is
welcomed and appreciated. It ensures that we remain Last Men. And the
death of religious institutions will only cement into place the new
secular religion of the Last Man, the one that worships military power,
personal advancement, hedonism and greed, the one that justifies our
ruthless callousness toward the weak and the poor.

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