GUATEMALA CITY - "Femicide," or
gender-based murder, has reached epidemic proportions in Guatemala. But
at least for Rosmery González - one of the more than 700 Guatemalan
victims of this crime in 2008 - justice is finally being done with the
arrest of her alleged killer earlier this month.
On Aug 6,
Óscar Romero, the 19-year-old victim’s uncle, who was the leading
suspect in her murder since she turned up dead in July of last year,
was taken into police custody from his home in a poor district of the
Pressure from human rights organisations and the women’s
movement, combined with the unrelenting efforts of the victim’s parents
finally led to Romero’s arrest. Just before she went missing, Rosmery
had been on her way to meet with her uncle, who had promised to help
her get a job at the National School of Agriculture (ENCA). Days after
her disappearance, her body was found on the grounds of ENCA.
"On the one hand, I’m nervous and worried because there are a
lot of risks involved, but I’m also happy because the authorities are
now behind me," González’s mother, Elizabeth Chajón, told IPS.
Just a few days earlier, she had described to this reporter
the impotence she felt at seeing how crimes like her daughter's murder
"When I went to the police to file the complaint (about
Rosmery's disappearance), they told me she couldn't have been kidnapped
and must have run off with her boyfriend," Chajón said.
Femicide is a term coined for misogynist or gender-related murders of women, sometimes accompanied by sexual violence.
According to official figures, over the last five years, a
total of 3,500 such murders were registered in this Central American
nation of roughly 13 million people. In the first seven months of 2009
alone, 351 women died as a result of ‘machista’ or sexist violence, and
that only reflects deaths by firearms or knives.
Eleven thousand murders were committed between 2006 and 2008
in the province of Guatemala alone - which has a population of 2.5
million people and includes the capital, Guatemala City - while 98
percent of all crimes perpetrated in the country go unpunished,
according to official figures and data from non-governmental
These staggering figures have led the international community
to speak of an epidemic. In a recent interview with IPS, Peruvian
lawyer and sociologist Gladys Acosta, Latin American and Caribbean
director for the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM),
said that the international community "must mobilise to act against
Guatemala’s epidemic of gender-motivated murders," which also tend to
be marked by extreme cruelty.
The epidemic also places Guatemala farther and farther away
from meeting the commitment of substantially reducing violence against
women and girls by 2015, as one of the priorities of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) agreed on by almost 200 member nations of the
United Nations at the turn of the 21st century.
The persistence of violence against women not only undermines
the specific MDG of achieving gender equality and empowering women; it
is inconsistent with all the MDGs.
In an "In-Depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women",
issued in July 2006, the United Nations states that "unless attention
to preventing and redressing violence against women is incorporated in
programmes to realise each of the Millennium Development Goals, the
health, social and economic consequences of such violence can limit the
potential benefits of these initiatives."
Violent crime is rampant in Guatemala, which has one of the
highest homicide rates in the world. In its report, the U.N. says
impunity is "a key factor" in violence against women.
Which is why Norma Cruz, head of the Fundación Sobrevivientes
(Survivors’ Foundation), a local NGO, sees Romero’s arrest as a
victory. "Every arrest made for the violent death of a human being is a
huge step for us," she told IPS.
Fundación Sobrevivientes, which provides psychological and
legal aid to victims of violence, has been the leading source of
support for the González family in their efforts to clarify Rosmery’s
Through their combined efforts they secured authorisation to
have Rosmery’s body exhumed last July, to determine the cause of death,
as the authorities had reported that the initial autopsy was
inconclusive and that she had died of undetermined causes.
They also managed to obtain a warrant for the police and the public
prosecutor’s office to search Romero’s workplace at ENCA, as no
inspection had been carried out when the body was found on the grounds
of the institution 13 months ago.
Rosmery's father Rafael González, pointing out that his cousin
Romero's house was not searched either, even though he was the chief
suspect, said all of the law enforcement authorities "are on the take."
"During the search of the ENCA facilities, photographs of
Rosmery were found in the suspect’s computer," said Cruz, adding that
she was optimistic with the progress made in the investigation.
"I think he (Romero) is not just going to sit back and take
it, which is why we’re going to have a written document drawn up
holding him responsible for anything that may happen to us," Chajón
said. "All her father and I want is to see justice done for our dead
daughter, but we know that means we are putting ourselves in danger."
Last month in the newspaper Prensa Libre, ENCA director Julio
César Catalán denounced that Romero’s job had been protected through
"pressure and influences in high places," which had prevented Catalán
from firing him, despite the firm suspicions that pointed to him as the
author of the crime that had stunned the institution a year earlier.
For Cruz, the new developments in the Rosmery case prove that
if one can overcome their fears and pressure the State to fulfil its
law enforcement duty, "impunity can be defeated.
"We’re not going to back down, we’re going to keep on
pressuring the authorities to move forward with the investigation and
the criminal action in court, until this man (Romero) is convicted,"
said Cruz. She also said that "at least one of the many cases of
impunity was on its way to being solved."
Cruz said they will be asking for a prison sentence of 50
years for the defendant, because the crime had several aggravating
circumstances, including that the victim was a woman and that the
murder was premeditated and involved deceit.
The public prosecutor’s office and the lawyers who are
handling the civil suit will ground their case on Guatemala’s new law
against gender violence, which went into effect in May 2008.
The law classifies femicide as a specific crime and establishes
mandatory damages for the victims’ families. It also stiffens penalties
for gender-related killings, which now range from 25 to 50 years
imprisonment. But the law has hardly been enforced, as few crimes even
make it to court.
According to Hilda Morales, of No to Violence Against Women,
an NGO, "there has been some progress in the law’s application, but it
has also met with obstacles. While it has led to a strengthening of the
support centres available for vulnerable women, and information on the
law has been disseminated nationwide, the public prosecutor’s office is
still not pursuing these cases as it should, and training is needed to
help interpret the law," she told IPS.
From June 2008 to March of this year, 4,035 criminal actions were filed
under the new law. Of these, 31 involved cases of femicide, and in that
whole time, only 11 sentences were handed down, according to Morales.
A study conducted this year by the Myrna Mack Foundation, a local human
rights group, revealed the lack of action by the prosecutor’s office:
60 percent of the cases it has under investigation have been stagnant
for over a year, and of the cases that were brought to court, 87
percent were thrown out or shelved.
When femicide is involved, the lack of action is even worse.
According to the study, an autopsy was only ordered in 12 percent of
the 2,191 murder cases committed between 2006 and 2008 in the province
of Guatemala in which the victims were women. "This reflects the scant
importance that prosecutors place on sexual assault committed prior to
death," the report says.
The study on the legal treatment of murders committed in that
province from 2006 to 2008 monitored 11,127 cases, 17 percent of which
involved women victims, Lázaro Murcia, one of the Foundation's
researchers, told IPS.
But Norma Cruz is convinced that "justice is possible if we leave our
fears behind. All the cases we’ve handled have been solved," she told
And the results prove her right. In 2008, Fundación
Sobrevivientes obtained 10 criminal convictions and won 524 civil
actions. This year, it has taken on 1,421 cases and is providing
psychological counselling to almost 900 women. "We hope to obtain seven
criminal convictions in cases involving violent deaths," Cruz said.
But the group's work is anything but easy, because the justice system
is "ridden with corruption," from the police right up to the Supreme
Court, she said.
Justice also faces another great enemy: fear. "Ninety-five
percent of all victims leave justice up to God, and that translates
into impunity," Cruz said.
"In Guatemala everyone lives in constant fear, and fear paralyses you.
These crimes must be made public, the perpetrators must be put behind
bars, so that the population can feel safe," she insisted.
This year, Cruz - whose family has been attacked and threatened because
of her work in the NGO - earned the U.S. secretary of state’s
International Women of Courage Award, which celebrates exceptional
courage and leadership in advocating for women’s rights and
advancement. But she says that her motivation comes from the many other
women with whom she shares what she calls a "thirst for justice."
That thirst is aggravated by a particular characteristic of
gender-killings in Guatemala: their viciousness. Torture,
dismemberment, mutilations, extreme sexual violence and other
unimaginable brutalities are the hallmark of the sexist crimes
committed against women in this country, in many cases at the hands of
boyfriends, husbands or exes, or of relatives or men known to the
"This girl was dismembered, these two, mother and daughter,
were stabbed, this woman was brutally murdered by her partner," Cruz
says as she points to the photos of victims whose families are
receiving legal support from Fundación Sobrevivientes.