PINELLAS COUNTY, Fla. - Jim Marshall recalls everything about that beautiful fall day.
temperature was about 70 degrees on Nov. 19, the sky was "totally
blue," and the laughter from a martini bar drifted into the St.
Petersburg park where Marshall, 39, sat contemplating his first day of
"I was thinking, 'That was me
at one point,' " he says of the revelers. "Now I'm thinking, 'Where am
I going to sleep tonight? Where do I eat? Where do I shower?' "
unemployed Detroit autoworker moved to Florida last year hoping he'd
have better luck finding a job. He didn't, and he spent three months
sleeping on sidewalks before landing in a tent city in Pinellas County,
north of St. Petersburg, on Feb. 26.
is among a growing number of the economic homeless, a term for those
newly displaced by layoffs, foreclosures or other financial troubles
caused by the recession. They differ from the chronic homeless, the
longtime street residents who often suffer from mental illness, drug
abuse or alcoholism.
the economic homeless, the American ideal that education and hard work
lead to a comfortable middle-class life has slipped out of reach.
They're packing into motels, parking lots and tent cities, alternately
distressed and hopeful, searching for work and praying their fortunes
"My parents always taught me to
work hard in school, graduate high school, go to college, get a degree
and you'll do fine. You'll do better than your parents' generation,"
Marshall says. "I did all those things. ... For a while, I did have that
good life, but nowadays that's not the reality."
cities and shelters from California to Massachusetts report growing
demand from the newly homeless. The National Alliance to End
Homelessness predicted in January that the recession would force 1.5
million more people into homelessness over the next two years. Already,
"tens of thousands" have lost their homes, Alliance President Nan Roman
The $1.5 billion in new federal
stimulus funds for homelessness prevention will help people pay rent,
utility bills, moving costs or security deposits, she says, but it
won't be enough.
"We're hearing from shelter
providers that the shelters are overflowing, filled to capacity," says
Ellen Bassuk, president of the National Center on Family Homelessness.
"The number of families on the streets has dramatically increased."
'A change in the population'
Hope, the tent city run by Catholic Charities here since December 2007,
has been largely for the chronically homeless, some of whom suffer from
mental illness or struggle with drugs or alcohol.
20% of its 240 residents became homeless recently because of the
economic downturn, says Frank Murphy, president of Catholic Charities,
Diocese of St. Petersburg.
"We're seeing a
change in the population. ... We're seeing a lot more that are just plain
losing their jobs and their homes," says Sheila Lopez, chief operating
officer of the charity. "A lot are either job-ready or working but have
lost their home because they were laid off, or their apartment, and now
can't go to work because they're not shaven, they're not clean, they're
living in a car, or they're living on the street."
charity plans to expand the tent city and build an encampment in a
neighboring county, an idea that has drawn objections from nearby
homeowners and businesses.
Communities elsewhere are facing similar pressures:
In Massachusetts, a record number of homeless families need emergency
shelter, says Robyn Frost, executive director of the Massachusetts
Coalition for the Homeless. In mid-April, there were 2,763 families in
shelters, including 655 in motels because the shelters were full, an
increase of 36% since July, she says.
have a high number of foreclosure properties, and many of them are
multifamily apartments," Frost says. "We were seeing a great number of
families being displaced."
- Reno officials
shut down a tent city in October after making more shelter space
available, but new encampments are popping up along the Truckee River
and elsewhere, says Kelly Marschall of the Reno Area Alliance for the
The homeless include "a startling
number of first-time homeless," she says. "We asked them what
industries they were involved in. The majority were talking about
construction, the housing industry, real estate. There was a direct
correlation to the housing market crash."
In Santa Barbara, Calif., 84 men and women sleep in their cars, trucks
or recreational vehicles in 17 parking lots around the city, says Jason
Johnson with the New Beginnings Counseling Center, which runs the RV
Safe Parking Program. The city, which allows the use of three municipal
lots at night, supports the program, says city parking superintendent
Victor Garza. Last May, there were 58 participants and no waiting list.
Now 40 people are waiting.
"People's last refuge has become their vehicle," Johnson says.
Objections by residents
Hope in Florida looks like a cookie-cutter subdivision, except that the
orderly rows are of tents, not houses. Besides 250 tents, all of
similar size, shape and color, there are 15 wooden sheds, 6 feet by 8
feet, that Catholic Charities built as shelters.
charity plans to reduce the number of tents to 150 and erect 100 sheds,
which are more durable, and build as many as 80 permanent studio
apartments on the property, Murphy says.
group also wants to open a campground for 240 homeless people in
neighboring Hillsborough County, he says, primarily using wooden sheds.
Pinellas Hope, which doesn't border residential neighborhoods, the
Hillsborough County parcel is across the street from a tidy 325-home
subdivision called East Lake Park. There, opponents of the tent city
have a website: www.stoptentcity.com.
Cindy Hart are raising three grandchildren in their home on the lake.
The kids, 4 to 13, fish for bass, ride their bikes to friends' houses
and attend neighborhood parties.
fear that large numbers of homeless people, some with addictions and
criminal backgrounds, would loiter in the neighborhood. "We will not be
able to let our grandchildren ride their bikes outside without constant
supervision," says Hal Hart, 52, a paralegal.
Harts agree that the homeless population needs services, but they think
the emphasis should be on programs that will help families, not single
Murphy says the diocese wants to address the neighbors' concerns and has lowered the number of proposed occupants from 500.
'A temporary situation'
Hope, which has a waiting list of about 150 people, is attracting a
growing stream of homeless men, women and couples. Families with
children are sent to area shelters.
arrivals must agree to rules, such as not using drugs or alcohol, and
perform chores, Lopez says. They get mats, sleeping bags, toiletries,
flip-flops for showers and lockable boxes in their tents to store
valuables. Within one week, they must make a plan describing how they
will work their way out of homelessness.
are expected to move on within five months, but some stay longer.
Campers have access to trailers with bathrooms, showers, computers,
washers and dryers and a room of donated clothes. They get a free bus
pass the first month and advice on writing résumés.
day, some leave camp to look for work or ride the bus to pass the time.
Others stay, watching TV in large communal tents, doing laundry or
playing Monopoly. At night, an off-duty police officer patrols the
camp, which is governed by curfews: 10:30 p.m. on weeknights and
midnight Fridays and Saturdays.
The camp bustles at dinnertime, when everyone gathers for a hot meal provided by churches and other organizations.
year ago, there were 5,500 homeless people in Pinellas County, says St.
Petersburg police officer Richard Linkiewicz, a homeless-outreach
officer. This year, there are 7,500, including 1,300 children in
homeless families, he says.
Many of the newly homeless worked in construction, a booming industry in Florida before the economic bust, he says.
Grondin, 48, moved in on Feb. 7 and stayed for two months. A union
carpenter, he graduated from the University of South Florida in 1999
with a bachelor's degree in fine arts.
struggled as carpentry work and odd jobs disappeared. When his 1992
Saturn died in August, he could no longer get to jobs far from public
Frustrated by his
inability to find a job in Florida, last month Grondin took a bus to
Portland, Maine, where he's staying with friends and looking for
carpentry work. "I was definitely middle class," he says. "I had a car.
I got a paycheck every week."
53, moved into Pinellas Hope in March after he was laid off from his
job waiting tables because diners "stopped coming through the doors,"
Shutt has decorated his tent with
house plants, including a ficus tree his mother gave him nearly 30
years ago, and pinned Tampa Bay Rays and Buccaneers jerseys to the
He tearfully recounts how he
got kicked out of his apartment by a roommate when he couldn't come up
with the rent. A former homeowner who made Caesar salads tableside at
restaurants, now he can't get a job at Taco Bell, he says. "This is the
first time in my life I ever dreamed about living in a tent," he says.
optimist by nature, Shutt vows that his stay will be short. He has
filled out more than 175 job applications and occasionally works for a
friend doing canvas work on boats. "This is a temporary situation," he
A diminished outlook
Marshall, the former autoworker, has an associate's degree in electronic engineering and is less encouraged.
remembers a comfortable life in Michigan, where he worked in automotive
testing, owned a brick ranch-style home, made up to $50,000 a year and
played in softball leagues.
worked for started losing contracts a few years ago, and eventually the
work dried up, he says. He sold his house and moved into an apartment,
but by 2007 he couldn't pay the rent.
He came to Florida in August, thinking the job market was better. But he couldn't pay the rent here, either.
Pinellas Hope, Marshall searches online job sites or takes the bus to
apply for work at McDonald's, factories and Wal-Mart. He gets $45 a
week selling his blood plasma.
"I have my
résumé online. I go door to door. I make phone calls," he says. "I have
not received one phone call, one e-mail. I thought with my experience
and my degree, it wouldn't be this difficult."
feels ill at ease in the camp and has trouble sleeping, and not just
because of the armadillos that burrow under his tent. "I'm scared," he
says. "If I can't find a job, where do I go next?"
this point, he has lowered his expectations. "I don't expect ever to
make $50,000 a year working in the auto industry, but just enough to
survive, have my own place, buy my own food, my own clothes," he says.
"What every American would expect."