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One In Four Mammals Risks Extinction

Alister Doyle

The Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica) moved from vulnerable to endangered. Its population has declined by 90% in the last 100 years due to unsustainable hunting and habitat degradation and is still decreasing Photograph: Simon Goodman/IUCN

BARCELONA, Spain - A quarter of the world's mammals are
threatened with extinction, an international survey showed on Monday,
and the destruction of habitats and hunting are the major causes.

The report, the most comprehensive to date by 1,700 researchers,
showed populations of half of all 5,487 species of mammals were in
decline. Mammals range in size from blue whales to Thailand's
insect-sized bumblebee bat.

"Mammals are declining faster than we thought -- one in four species
is threatened with extinction worldwide," Jan Schipper, who led the
team, told Reuters of the report issued in Barcelona as part of a "Red
List" of threatened species.

He said threats were worst for land mammals in Asia, where creatures
such as orang utans are suffering from deforestation. Almost 80 percent
of primates in the region were under threat.

Click here to see additional photos.

Of the 4,651 mammals for which scientists have data, 1,139 species
were under threat of extinction. Schipper said the data was far broader
than the previous review of mammals in 1996.

Threats to species including the Tasmanian Devil, an Australian
marsupial, the Caspian seal or the fishing cat, found in Asia, were
among those to have worsened. At least 76 mammals have gone extinct
since 1500.

"Within our lifetime hundreds of species could be lost as a result
of our own actions," said Julia Marton-Lefevre, director general of the
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which compiles
the Red List and is meeting in Spain.


Of the 2008 total, 188 were listed as "critically endangered," the
worst category before extinction, including the Iberian lynx of which
there are just 84-143 adults left. Cuba's rat-like little earth hutia
has not been seen in 40 years.

Habitat loss and hunting -- for everything from food to medicines --
"are by far the main threats to mammals," Schipper and his team wrote
in the journal Science. "The population of one in two is declining,"
they said.

Among other threats, global warming blamed by the U.N. Climate Panel
on human use of fossil fuels, was hitting species dependent on Arctic
sea ice such as the polar bear.

But the report, issued during an Oct 5-14 IUCN congress, was not all
gloom. Five percent of species were recovering because of conservation
efforts, including the European bison and the black-footed ferret,
found in North America.

The African elephant was also moved down one notch of risk, to "near
threatened" from "vulnerable," because of rising populations in
southern and eastern Africa.

And a total of 349 species have been found since 1992, such as the
elephant shrew in Tanzania, it said. Schipper said some species may be
vanishing before they are even described.

The report focused on mammals but the situation for some other types
of animals and plants is even worse, according to the IUCN, comprising
governments and conservation organizations.

An updated "Red List" said that 16,928 species, or 38 percent, were
threatened out of a total of 44,838. Among animals most at risk are
amphibians, such as frogs and toads.

Schipper said governments urgently needed to work out ways to
protect life on earth. "Conservation action backed by research is a
clear priority," he said.

Editing by Janet Lawrence


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