- War has come to Pakistan, not just as terrorist bombings, but as
full-scale battles, leaving Pakistanis angry and dismayed as the dead,
wounded and displaced turn up right on their doorstep.
An estimated 250,000 people have now fled the helicopters, jets,
artillery and mortar fire of the Pakistani Army, and the assaults,
intimidation and rough justice of the Taliban who have dug into Pakistan's tribal areas.
About 20,000 people are so desperate that they have flooded over
the border from the Bajaur tribal area to seek safety in Afghanistan.
Many others are crowding around this northwest Pakistani city, where staff members from the United Nations refugee agency are present at nearly a dozen camps.
No reliable casualty figures are available. But the International
Committee of the Red Cross flew in a special surgical team from abroad
last week to work alongside Pakistani doctors and help treat the
wounded in two hospitals, so urgent has the need become.
"This is now a war zone," said Marco Succi, the spokesman for the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Not since Pakistan forged an alliance with the United States after
9/11 has the Pakistani Army fought its own people on such a scale and
at such close quarters to a major city. After years of relative
passivity, the army is now engaged in heavy fighting with the militants
on at least three fronts.
The sudden engagement of the Pakistani Army comes after months in
which the United States has heaped criticism, behind the scenes and in
public, on Pakistan for not doing enough to take on the militants, and
increasingly took action into its own hands with drone strikes and even
a raid by Special Operations forces in Pakistan's tribal areas.
But the army campaign has also unfolded as the Taliban have
encroached deeper into Pakistan proper and carried out far bolder
terrorist attacks, like the Marriott Hotel bombing on Sept. 20, which
have generated fears among the political, business and diplomatic elite
that the country is teetering.
Fighting on Three Fronts
In early August, goaded by the American complaints and faced with a nexus of the Taliban and Al Qaeda that had become too powerful to ignore, the chief of the Pakistan military, Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, opened the front in Bajaur, a Taliban and Qaeda stronghold along the Afghan border.
Earlier this summer, the military became locked in an uphill fight
against the militants in Swat, a more settled area of North-West
Frontier Province that was once a middle-class ski resort. Today it is
a maelstrom of killing.
"Swat is a place of hell," said Wajid Ali Khan, a minister in the
provincial government who has taken refuge in Peshawar. Mr. Khan said
he was so afraid that he had not been to his house in Swat for a month.
At a third front, south of Peshawar, around the town of Dera Adam
Khel, the army recently recaptured from Taliban control the strategic
Kohat tunnel, a road more than a mile long that carries NATO supplies from the port of Karachi to the American and coalition forces in Afghanistan.
The new president of Pakistan, Asif Ali Zardari, spoke in New York during a visit to the United Nations General Assembly, about how the fight against terrorism was Pakistan's war, not America's.
But even as the gruesome effects of the battles slam the national
consciousness, there has been scant effort to prepare the public for
the impact of the fighting. Public opinion has soured on Pakistan's
alliance with the United States and has strongly opposed military
campaigns that inflict heavy civilian casualties.
Pakistani law enforcement officials and residents of Bajaur and
Swat say there have been many civilian deaths, but so far, no agency or
government body has offered an estimate of those killed.
Hanging in the balance in the fighting is the allegiance of the
civilians who have seen their homes wrecked, their cattle and crops
abandoned, and their loved ones killed and wounded.
Pakistani Army commanders have said that in order to put down the
Taliban, the government must win the hearts and minds of the Bajaur
Losing Hearts and Minds
But in interviews in the camps, and in villages around Peshawar
where the displaced are bunking with relatives, many of the people of
Bajaur say they are fed up with both sides of the conflict.
In the Red Cross hospital ward, two young brothers, Haseen Ullah,
5, and Shakir Ullah, 8, lay immobile on their hospital beds, their
limbs tightly bound in white bandages covering what Dr. Daniel
Brechbuhler, a Red Cross surgeon, said were shrapnel wounds.
The father of the two wounded boys, Hajji Sher Zaman, a relatively
well-to-do used-car dealer in Bajaur, said he had no patience with the
But Mr. Zaman said he was furious with the government for not
holding anyone responsible for the killing and wounding of civilians.
"In Bajaur, innocent people are being killed as infidels, the dead
cattle are lying on the road, the roads are tainted with the blood of
the people who have been killed," he said. On return trips in recent
weeks, he said, his village was "full of the rotten smell of dead
"Why not target the real people, the administration knows where they are," Mr. Zaman said.
In another ward, Amin Baacha, 13, lay with only one arm, his right
one had been amputated. An army helicopter had circled his family's
pickup truck as they were fleeing their village and fired on them, the
An Insurgent Sanctuary
At a briefing at army headquarters in Rawalpindi on Monday, the
military said it believed that Fakir Mohammed, the leader of the
Taliban in Bajaur, had taken sanctuary in the neighboring Mohmand
district. Another important commander, an Afghan Taliban, Qari Ziaur
Rehman, had moved back to Afghanistan, it said.
From their side of the fighting in Bajaur, the Taliban have mounted
a brutal show of intimidation, aided by money and deep support from
across the border in Afghanistan and Mohmand, according to interviews
with the displaced and with law enforcement and military officials.
Recently, the Taliban leader, Mr. Mohammed, stormed into a
gathering of tribal leaders, arriving in a convoy of 20 vehicles, said
Habib-ur Rehman, a trader from Bajaur who now lives in a camp for the
displaced in Timergara in the district of Dir, just outside Bajaur.
Mr. Mohammed, who is described by the army as one of the most
skilled Taliban tacticians, told the tribesmen, "I'm here to get you to
stop the meeting. If you don't stop, you will have a coffin over your
heads,' " Mr. Rehman recalled.
The Taliban were well financed, some of the displaced tribesmen said.
In Koz Cinari, in Mohmand, the Taliban gathered nightly with a
fleet of up to 100 double-cabin pickup trucks, according to a resident
of Koz Cinari who spoke on the condition of anonymity for fear of
The vehicles were carefully caked in mud for camouflage against
possible sightings from government planes, with only a patch of clear
glass in front for the driver. The convoys then crossed into Bajaur
with men and weapons, the resident said.
Foreign languages pierced the nighttime air as the vehicles were prepared, the resident said.
According to the military officials at the briefing on Monday, many of the Taliban fighters come from Central Asia.
In Swat, the Pakistani Army has been fighting the Taliban for more
than two months, and still the Taliban hold the upper hand, according
to accounts from people who have fled the area.
Reports of Taliban terrorism are widespread.
In one case, scores of Taliban fighters confronted Iqbal Ahmed
Khan, the brother of Waqar Khan, a member of the provincial assembly.
The fighters ordered Mr. Khan, who was with two of his sons, to choose
the son he wanted killed, said the president of the Awami National
Party, Senator Asfandyar Wali.
After Mr. Khan was humiliated into choosing one son, the Taliban killed both boys, Mr. Khan and seven servants, Mr. Wali said.
On Thursday a suicide bomber attacked Mr. Wali's home, killing four
people and narrowly missing Mr. Wali, one of the best-known politicians
in North-West Frontier Province and a national figure.
Life in a Battle Zone
Many residents of Swat say they are exasperated by the army-imposed
round-the-clock curfew that keeps them indoors listening to the scream
of jets and the thud of artillery.
To increase the misery, the Taliban blew up the power grid last
week, and when protesters gathered in the main street of Mingora, the
police fired on them, killing six people.
More than 140 girls schools have been destroyed by the Taliban in the last several months.
In a typical technique to raise funds, the militants ordered the
shopkeepers in the mall in the town of Matta to stop paying rent to the
landlord and pay the militants instead.
"There is no light, no gas, no water, no food," Mr. Khan said.
Despite all the distress of the civilians, "only two Taliban
commanders have been killed," he said. "The army has its strategy, but
they don't explain."
The one hope in the gloom of war, said civilians and law enforcement
officials, has been the formation of small private armies by tribal
leaders, known in the region as lashkars.
They have traditionally served as a way of dealing with squabbles in
Pakistan's tribal society, but are now being formed in some cases to
stand up to the Taliban.
Forming Tribal Armies
In Salarzai, in the northern corner of Bajaur, a local private army
has attracted several thousand anti-Taliban fighters, said Jalal-Uddin
Khan, a tribal leader.
But whether the fervor of the tribesmen and their ancient equipment
can be a match for the ideological zeal, modern weaponry and
sophisticated tactics of the Taliban is an open question.
In other places, like Dir, just outside Bajaur, these private
armies have pledged to keep both the Pakistani Army and the Taliban
from entering their territory.
"Where the army comes, the Taliban come," said Sher Bahadar Khan, a
tribal leader from Upper Dir. His community had organized a militia and
persuaded the army not to put up checkpoints. The army was of little
comfort because when the Taliban killed civilians, soldiers stood by as
a "silent spectator," he said.
Closer to Peshawar, in the village of Shabqadar, where the Taliban
have held sway for months, the local police organized civilians to join
them in a display of force against the militants.
The Taliban had terrorized women who did not wear the burqa, and
killed men they deemed as "pimps" and threw their bodies in the river.
The police chief of North-West Frontier Province, Malik Naveed
Khan, said he had encouraged the new police chief in Shabqadar to
organize a "popular movement."
Last week, about 500 people, led by the local police chief, marched
toward a fort controlled by the Taliban in Shabqadar, Mr. Khan said.
A 15-hour battle ensued, leaving nine Taliban fighters dead and 28
wounded, the police chief said. On the government side, one man was
killed, and five wounded, he said.
In revenge, the Taliban threatened to blow up Warsak Dam, the main
water supply for Peshawar. But Mr. Khan said he was not deterred. He
would not back down. "I told the governor: ‘Open many fronts. We are
more than them.' "