The car-theft suspect became the latest Canadian, and the youngest, according to Amnesty International, to die in a Taser-related incident.
The subsequent controversy has thrust police in the Manitoba capital into the spotlight of the ongoing debate about Taser safety, and has provided more ammunition for opponents of the "electronic control device" who have long called on law-enforcement agencies to suspend its use.
Frank Addario is president of the Criminal Lawyers' Association, which has called for a moratorium on the use of the weapon pending an inquiry into its safety He said officer training lacks uniformity and follow-up procedures are either ineffective or incomplete -- making it difficult to determine whether police are strictly limiting Tasers to situations where subjects pose a probable threat of serious injury to themselves or to others.
"This is not about whether one supports the police or whether one empathizes with their abilities in managing unruly suspects," Addario said. "This is about whether the weapon, as designed, is delivering what it promised, and if it is not, police forces in Canada ought to stop using it until better training can occur or the weapon can be modified."
Tasers are billed by police forces and the device's manufacturer as an effective weapon that can save lives and reduce injury to officers and suspects.
Critics warn there is no medical consensus on their safety and say public confidence in Tasers as a "non-lethal" use of force is increasingly being eroded in the wake of more than 20 deaths in Canada since 2003 linked to -- though not blamed on -- the conductive energy weapon.
Amid the public outcry following the release of a video of Robert Dziekanski, a Polish immigrant who was Tasered in October, 2007 at Vancouver International Airport by the RCMP, a report by the Mounties public complaints commission chairman Paul Kennedy urged the RCMP to reign in their use of Tasers.
He said it appeared Tasers were being deployed by RCMP more often and much earlier in encounters with suspects than originally intended when they were adopted. Still, the extent of "usage creep" was impossible to determine because the Mounties had engaged in "systematic under-reporting."
According to documents obtained under the Access to Information Act by Canwest News Service, the overall use of Tasers by the RCMP soared to 1,119 incidents in 2006 and 1,414 in 2007, compared with only 597 incidents in 2005.
Municipal police forces across the country largely classify Tasers as "intermediate weapons" and consider them an appropriate option for subjects "actively resistant" towards an officer, Kennedy said in his report.
Still, he noted there remain "subtle but significant differences" in operational policies surrounding their use.
Earlier this month, Nova Scotia placed interim restrictions limiting Tasers to "situations of violent or aggressive resistance or active threat that may cause serious injury," following the release of a report into the death of a 45-year-old man who passed away hours after officers deployed a Taser.
Ontario only allows tactical officers or front-line supervisors to carry Tasers, while they are a standard tool of front-line police in Winnipeg, Calgary, and in Edmonton.
Dziekanski's death prompted the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary to hold off on plans to expand their use of Tasers. The Saskatchewan Police Commission announced Friday it won't authorize the use of the devices by members of the province's 14 municipal and First Nation police services. However, SWAT team members will continue to be authorized to use them.
Addario said the varying protocols for Taser deployment need to be harmonized across the country so all police forces are "singing from the same songbook" when it
comes to the circumstances under which Tasers should be used.
A briefing note reviewing current medical research and literature on Tasers prepared for the Canadian Association of Police Boards in March suggested deaths or injuries that occur proximal to the use of the Taser will continue to prompt "flare ups" from the public that likely will result in ongoing pressure to define more precisely when a Taser
should and should not be deployed.
The report added policies dictating when officers can deploy a Taser could be detrimental to good policing and counter-productive because use of force is contingent on a mix of circumstances at any scene.
There is no "black and white" answer, said RCMP Const. Donald Perrett. He monitors and compiles daily reports of Taser use by officers across the country.
"Policework is dynamic," Perrett said. "It is difficult to say when and how, because two police officers can look at the exact same situation and will both respond differently."
In May, a study by researchers published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal said despite research suggesting Tasers don't hurt internal organs such as the heart, "it is inappropriate to conclude stun-gun discharges cannot lead to adverse cardiac consequences in all real-world settings."
Accompanying the research was an editorial by CMAJ deputy editor Dr. Matthew Stanbrook who said Taser safety has become a public health issue as law-enforcement officials preach the benefits of deploying the weapon when dealing with subjects suffering "excited delirium."
The highly controversial diagnosis is not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders but has increasingly been listed by coroners as a cause of death in people restrained by police during an altercation -- regardless of whether a Taser was used.
Associated with individuals who have taken drugs, alcohol or who have a mental illness, symptoms can include agitation and super-human strength and can lead to sudden death, some researchers suggest.
Many police trainers teach officers excited delirium is a medical emergency and the sooner someone is taken into care, the better off they will be.
It's a recommendation endorsed by several coroner's juries -- most recently by a panel in Ontario looking into the death of amateur boxer Jerry Knight, who fought more than 20 officers before being subdued during an incident in a motel lobby in 2004.
Mike Webster, a police psychologist, said "well-meaning" law-enforcement officials have been "brainwashed" by the device's manufacturer to justify "ridiculously and inappropriate" use of the weapon for a disorder that doesn't exist.
"Police have been indoctrinated into believing in this fictitious disorder -- this excited delirium -- and it is presented as a rational for the use of the weapon," said Webster who testified at public inquiry in B.C. probing Tasers.
Meanwhile, Winnipeg Police Chief Keith McCaskill warned this week it is far too early to pass judgment on the circumstances surrounding Langan's death.
But he said police in the city are trained "very clearly" on how to respond to situations such as the one two patrol officers were confronted with on Tuesday.
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RECENT CANADIAN TASER INCIDENTS
- Oct. 14. Robert Dziekanski died after being Tasered by the RCMP at Vancouver International Airport. He just arrived from Poland and due to a mix up waited for hours in the arrivals area, becoming distraught and tossing chairs.
- Oct. 15. John Moore of London, Ont., had a heart attack while being subdued by police with a Taser. He admitted to being high on drugs at the time of his arrest.
- Oct. 18. Quilem Registre, 39, died of multiple heart attacks several days after being Tasered by Montreal police. He was stopped by police on Oct. 15 on suspicion of drunk driving.
- Oct. 31. Ron Chipman, 22, was restrained and Tasered in a police cell in the Regional Municipality of Cape Breton. He claimed he resisted being restrained because he was choking.
- Nov. 5. John Peters, a senior citizen who was double parked while delivering free newspapers in Kelowna, B.C., was Tasered twice by the RCMP when he ignored their attempts to ticket him for the traffic violation. The RCMP publically apologized but Peters is suing.
- Nov. 20. Robert Knipstrom, 36, of Chilliwack, B.C., was killed after struggling with the RCMP. Police used pepper spray, a Taser and a baton to subdue him. He died days later in hospital.
- Nov. 21. Howard Hyde, 45, of Dartmouth, N.S., died about 30 hours after being Tasered by police. A paranoid schizophrenic who had stopped taking his medication, he had been arrested for assaulting his girlfriend.
- Dec. 10. Ghasem Yarahmadi brandished a knife in the Whitehorse RCMP detachment and attempted to slash his own wrists. He was Tasered by police and later treated in hospital for unspecified injuries.
- Feb. 28. A man with a knife walked into an RCMP detachment in Moncton, N.B., then attacked a civilian employee, while asking police to shoot him. He was subdued but not injured with a Taser.
- March 21. Victoria area RCMP Taser a violent 15-year-old while he was handcuffed inside a police vehicle. The youth had been picked up for violating a court-ordered curfew. He was not injured.
- April 3. A Calgary man, high on cocaine, was Tasered three times in an effort to subdue him after he stole a truck, drove into a garage, a police car and finally a fence. He was not injured.
- April 5. Terrence Yellowback of the Manto Sipi Cree Nation in Manitoba is shot, then Tasered by an RCMP officer when he refused to drop the table leg he was brandishing as a weapon. He later admitted he had been drinking and deliberately walked towards the police with the weapon but maintains the Tasering was excessive. He was treated in hospital for the gunshot wound.
- April 18. An unidentified Hamilton, Ont., man is treated in hospital for burns after a shock from a Taser ignited his trousers. Police suggest the man had a flammable substance in his pants. The Ontario Special Investigations Unit is investigating.
- May 1. RCMP Commissioner William Elliot is voluntarily Tasered by police in Alberta. A small hole was burned in his shirt but he refused to describe the experience to the media. Alberta Attorney General Fred Lindsay was also Tasered at the same time and described the pain as "incapacitating" but that it dissipated quickly.
- June 23. Jeffrey Marreel died in June in Norfolk County, about 130 kilometres southwest of Toronto, after being Tasered by Ontario Provincial Police. He was causing a disturbance and had a history of depression and drug use.
- July 7, 2008. Cape Breton Regional Police Taser a pit-bull type dog that was endangering a crowd. The Humane Society euthanized the dog.
- July 11. Jonathan Lavoie is Tasered once by the RCMP in Campbellton, N.B., as they try to subdue him after he assaulted three people and stole a police car.
- July 12. Nova Scotia issues new guidelines for stun gun use by police agencies and will create the position of a "use-of-force co-ordinator "as recommended in an advisory panel report issued June 30.
- July 22. A 17-year old teenager died after being shocked with a Taser by Winnipeg police. They were pursuing him after he allegedly robbed a car, and brandished a knife at police.
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