The vote comes amid increasing environmental concerns about the use of bottled water because of its use of plastic and energy costs to transport drinking supplies.
The mayors, meeting in Miami, approved a resolution proposed by San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom along with 17 other large-city mayors to redirect taxpayer dollars from bottled water to other city services.
"Cities are sending the wrong message about the quality of public water when we spend taxpayer dollars on water in disposable containers from a private corporation," said Newsom.
"Our public water systems are among the best in the world and demand significant and ongoing investment."
According to the activist group Think Outside the Bottle, more than 60 mayors in the United States have already canceled bottled water contracts.
"It's just plain common sense for cities to stop padding the bottled water industry's bottom line at taxpayer expense," said Gigi Kellett, national director of the Think Outside the Bottle campaign.
"This resolution will send the strong message that opting for tap over bottled water is what's best for our environment, our pocketbooks and our long-term, equitable access to our most essential resource."
The American Beverage Associations called the resolution "tainted with hypocrisies and inaccuracies."
"While some mayors oppose the use of bottled water by city governments, most mayors across America gladly welcome bottled water when disaster strikes," the industry group said in a statement.
"Our beverage companies continually come to the aid of communities ravaged by floods, fires, hurricanes, other natural disasters and compromised municipal water systems."
The group said plastic water bottles "are 100 percent recyclable, making bottled water one of the few fully recyclable consumer goods."
© 2008 Agence France Presse