Local Iraqi Governments Oppose Baghdad Gas Deals
Provinces angered by energy auctions which officials say may have violated the Iraqi constitution.
The oil ministry’s auction of three natural gas fields this week have
been angrily opposed by all the governorates in which they are located,
with provincial officials threatening legal action against Baghdad and
warning that they will refuse to cooperate with the developers.
Bids were granted to companies from Turkey, Kuwait, Kazakstan and South
Korea to develop gas fields holding approximately ten per cent of the
country’s reserves. The fields in Anbar, Diyala and Basra are primarily
being developed for domestic consumption to improve Iraq’s feeble power
supply, oil ministry officials said.
But provincial council members maintain the oil ministry overstepped
its bounds – and may have violated the constitution – by holding the
auction without consulting local officials. The provinces say they want
more control over their natural resources and assurances that the
developments will benefit their economies.
The dispute reflects ongoing tensions between local authorities and
Baghdad over management of the country’s vast natural resources. The
proposed hydrocarbons law, drafted in 2007, regulates the management and
contracting of natural resources between local and federal authorities –
though it has been stalled for years. Parliament was expected to debate
the legislation after the March elections, but this has been held up by
the bitter political disputes that have left the country without a
Iraq has the fourth-largest proven oil reserves in the world, and is
believed to have the tenth-largest gas reserves. Most of the country’s
natural resources are undeveloped.
In western Anbar governorate, the council is threatening to sue the oil
ministry for not consulting local authorities on the auction bid. It
says it will not assist the foreign firms that won the right to develop
Akkas, a large gas reserve near the Syrian border.
While no laws exist to regulate Iraq’s natural resources, local
officials point to Article 109 of the constitution, which mandates that
the federal government should manage oil and gas “with the producing
governorates and regional governments”.
“The council will not provide any kind of cooperation or support or
facilities to those companies that won the bid,” Jasim al-Halbusi, the
head of the provincial council, told IWPR.
Asked if there could be attacks on the foreign companies developing the
field, Halbusi responded, “The central government will bear the
responsibility for ignoring the decision of Anbar’s local government and
the demands of Anbar’s people.”
“Signing the contract regarding Akkas gas field without listening to
our decision [to refuse the deal] will stoke problems between the local
and federal governments.”
Once the centre of the Sunni insurgency, Anbar is now largely
controlled by local tribes who defected from groups such as al-Qaeda.
Security has improved there since 2007 but remains a major concern,
particularly for foreigners.
Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahristani called on local authorities to
cooperate with the firms that won the gas field auction, warning that
“the government will be very strong and severely punish everyone who
hinders development of these contracts”.
Anbar’s provincial council announced its opposition to the auction days
before bidding opened in Baghdad. The conflict between Anbar and
central government began earlier this year when the oil ministry turned
down a proposal by local officials to have a consortium of Turkish and
German companies develop Akkas, Mezher Hasan al-Mullah, head of Anbar
council’s investment committee, said. The council threatened to reject
the oil ministry’s proposals after their own was turned down, Mullah
In Diyala and Basra, officials claimed they were never officially
notified about the auction. The oil ministry maintains that it has the
right to sign development contracts for oil and gas, and that local
officials were well aware of the auction, which was originally scheduled
But Ahmed al-Seleti, a member of the Basra provincial council,
insisted, “This is an important issue for the province, and we should
not be excluded like this. Perhaps after several years we will need
another revolution to nationalise oil.”
Sadiq al-Musawi, deputy governor of Diyala, also claimed that the
development contracts were illegal because local authorities were not
consulted, although he said his council did not intend to take the
dispute further. Basra officials said they are to discuss taking action
against the oil ministry over the deals.
In addition to threatening to sue the government for not consulting
local authorities, Anbar’s provincial council is considering organising
demonstrations and may go on strike to protest the oil ministry’s
decision, Halbusi said.
Still, Tariq Harb, a member of parliament and a legal expert, said the
contracts are “legal and constitutional, and the provinces have no power
to object to the contracts or the bid results”.
Thamir al-Ghadban, prime minister Nuri al-Maliki’s oil adviser, said
the gas development projects will improve quality of life in the
provinces by providing electricity and jobs.
And Jihad, the oil ministry spokesman, said the ministry will discuss
the contracts with both local officials and citizens and does not
believe security will be a concern, adding, “I don’t think there will
But local opposition to the projects is clear. Residents of Basra,
Anbar and Diyala said they were angry about the contracts, maintaining
that the money would not trickle down to citizens if it was controlled
“The revenue from the gas will go to Baghdad and the situation here
will still be miserable,” said Sheikh Salam Ajmi, a Fallujah tribal
leader who participated in a demonstration in the city this week.
Basim Saeed, a 45-year-old teacher in Diyala, said the local government
should stop international companies from working in the provinces.
Calling them “vampires who want to suck the blood of locals by making a
deal with Baghdad”, he added, “If those firms try to come here and
exploit our wealth they will be in trouble and won’t be able to get out
Reporting by IWPR Iraq senior local editor Abeer Mohammed in
Baghdad and IWPR-trained journalist Uthman al-Mukhtar in Fallujah.
IWPR-trained journalists Ali Mohammed and Ali Abu Iraq contributed to
this report from Diyala and Basra.