The Biggest Dump in the World

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The Telegraph/UK

The Biggest Dump in the World

As large as the USA, the Great Pacific Waste Patch is the biggest dump in the world. Ed Cumming discovers that it keeps getting bigger, and could be poisoning us all

by
Ed Cumming

A shark carcass on Kamilo Beach, Hawaii, where plastic particles outnumber sand grains until you dig down about a foot (Photo: ALGALITA MARINE RESEARCH FOUNDATION)

The world’s biggest rubbish dump keeps growing. The Great Pacific Garbage
Patch – or the Pacific Trash Vortex – is a floating monument to our culture
of waste, the final resting place of every forgotten carrier bag, every
discarded bottle and every piece of packaging blown away in the wind.
Opinions about the exact size of this great, soupy mix vary, but some claim
it has doubled over the past decade, making it now six times the size of the
UK.

Dr Simon Boxall, a physical oceanographer at the National Oceanography Centre
at the University of Southampton, goes even further: “It’s the size of North
America. But although the patch itself is extremely large, it’s only one
very clear representation of the much bigger worldwide problem.”

This global problem is the motive behind the Plastiki, a 60ft, 12-ton
catamaran built from 12,500 recycled plastic bottles, which embarks on its
maiden voyage from San Francisco this week. The brainchild of David de
Rothschild, the flamboyant British banking heir and environmentalist, the
Plastiki will sail right through the middle of the Garbage Patch as part of
a campaign to help make more people aware of the Pacific’s threatened
communities and of the damage our waste is doing to our oceans.

Plastic is the main issue. Fifty years ago, most flotsam was biodegradable.
Now it is 90 per cent plastic. In 2006, the United Nations Environment
Programme estimated that there were 46,000 pieces of floating plastic in
every square mile of ocean. With its stubborn refusal to biodegrade, all
plastic not buried in landfills – roughly half of it – sweeps into streams
and sewers and then out into rivers and, finally, the ocean. Some of it –
some say as much as 70 per cent – sinks to the ocean floor. The remainder
floats, usually within 20 metres of the surface, and is carried into stable
circular currents, or gyres “like ocean ring-roads”, says Dr Boxall. Once
inside these gyres, the plastic is drawn by wind and surface currents
towards the centre, where it steadily accumulates. The world’s major oceans
all have these gyres, and all are gathering rubbish. Although the North
Pacific – bordering California, Japan and China – is the biggest, there are
also increasingly prominent gyres in the South Pacific, the North and South
Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. Our problems with plastics are only just
beginning.

The Pacific Garbage Patch had been predicted as early as the late Eighties but
it was only formally discovered in 1997 by Charles Moore, an American
yacht-racing captain sailing home across the North Pacific from a
competition in Hawaii. He noticed a large amount of debris in the centre of
the gyre, and together with the oceanographer, Curtis Ebbesmeyer, formulated
the idea of the Eastern Garbage Patch. Other research revealed a secondary
patch to the West, and these two together constitute the Great Pacific
Patch, located roughly between 135-155°W and 35-45°N. In 1999, Moore
followed up his initial findings with a report showing that there was eight
times as much plastic as plankton in the North Pacific. And there is a lot
of plankton.

The image of a great floating mound of trash, though evocative, can be
misleading. Dr Boxall says: “People imagine it as a kind of football pitch
of rubbish you can go and walk on – it’s not like that.” As most of the
plastic has been broken down into tiny particles, floating beneath the
surface, it is impossible to photograph from aircraft or satellites, or even
really to see until you are right in its centre. As a result, it is
difficult to convey the grave danger this 100 million tons or so of rubbish
– and counting – presents. This is where the Plastiki – named after Thor
Heyerdahl’s Kon-Tiki project in 1947 – comes in. Its crew of six is being
skippered by the rising star of British ocean sailing, Jo Royle, 29. Ms
Royle is everything you could want at the figurehead of your mission:
blonde, vivacious and – behind a Lancastrian burr that survived her
upbringing in Devon – a passionate environmentalist. She seems unfazed about
sailing slap bang into the middle of the watery skip of the world.

“I can’t wait to get there,” she says. “Being in the middle of the ocean puts
you back in your place – if you’re not responsive, you don’t survive. It
makes you think hard about how you consume.”

However, she readily concedes that it is easy for the layman to ask: “So
what?” Some might be tempted to argue that the rubbish has to end up
somewhere, and that the ocean is no worse than landfill. Herein lies the
main danger: plastic does not biodegrade, but when exposed to sunlight it
photo-degrades, breaking down into smaller and smaller particles, and
finally to “nurdles”, the industry name for the tiny grains that are the
building blocks of most modern plastics. These tiny particles are not
harmful on their own, but they are very absorbent, and soak up waterborne
toxins, such as pesticides and cooling agents. These nurdles, now saturated
in poisons, are eaten by filter-feeders at the very bottom of the food
chain, and then make their way up it.

The scale of the toxin problem is unknown. Although plastics have now been
around for a century, their use has only been really widespread for 50
years. Also, the threat is not only from food – marine extracts are used in
countless other products too: particularly cosmetics. Since there are so
many possible routes for toxins from these plastics to enter our food chain,
there has yet to be an in-depth scientific study of their possible effect on
humans. But these particles are certainly killing marine life: the UN
estimates that more than one million birds and 100,000 mammals die every
year from plastics – by poisoning, entanglement and choking. There are also
studies under way investigating the possible connection between a rise in
fertility problems and cancers, and the proliferation of plastic in the
ocean.

The solution is equally confounding – there is just so much junk. Most experts
agree that the real change needs to come above ground, from people taking
more responsibility for their dumping.

As Ms Royle says: “The four worst-offending plastics – carrier bags,
bottle-tops, bottles and styrofoam – are some we could easily do without,
with a bit more thought. It’s just about making the effort to change our
habits: not getting chips in a styrofoam container, reusing carrier bags –
small things.”

There are some – led by the renowned American environmentalist and National
Geographic Explorer-at-large Sylvia Earle– who think that we should simply
try not to use plastics at all. Ms Royle dismisses this approach: “Plastic
is a part of our world, and it’s hugely important.”

Others would like the US government to embark on an operation to clean the
ocean manually, using tankers to retrieve the plastic, which could then be
used as fuel.

“I don’t think that’s a very good idea,” says Ms Royle. “It would take a
tremendous amount of resources to sweep the ocean. If you then burn the
plastic, you create a lot of black carbon dioxide, which pollutes the
atmosphere. I think the solution has to come from the shore.” She points out
that San Francisco, the city closest to the Great Pacific Patch, has
successfully implemented policies to stop people using wasteful plastics.
“If they can do it, so can we. We just need to stop all this dumb usage.”

Dr Boxall is decidedly less optimistic: “There is nothing we can do,” he says.
“It’s too big. It’s here to stay. It’s like nuclear waste. Even an oil
spillage, disastrous as it is, eventually breaks down. Plastic doesn’t.
We’ve simply got to become better about how we dispose of waste.”

The Plastiki team hopes its voyage can make a difference, however small. But
until something drastically changes – particularly in developing countries,
such as China and Brazil – the ocean will continue to bear the brunt of our
wasteful ways with plastic. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and its growing
imitators around the world, will continue to sprawl.

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