NEW YORK -- ”If a local candidate wants to be on television, and cannot afford to advertise, his only hope may be to have a freak accident,” quipped U.S. Senator John McCain as he introduced legislation to compel local television stations to improve their coverage of local political campaigns.
McCain's effort was triggered by a recent study carried by the Lear Centre Local News Archive at the University of Southern California (USC) Annenberg School for Communication.
Among other things, the study found that local stations devoted 12 times as much coverage to sports and weather, and eight times more to stories about accidental injuries, than they did to all local political races combined.
”One of the most startling statistics from the study is the ratio of political advertisements to candidate news stories aired during a half-hour news cast,” McCain said. ”Reduced news coverage led candidates to spend over 1.6 billion dollars on television ads in 2004 to introduce themselves to voters -- double the amount spent in 2000.”
McCain, a Republican from Arizona, is the co-author of the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform law. While hailed as a landmark piece of legislation when it passed Congress in March 2002, most observers say the law had little effect on campaign contributions during the 2004 presidential campaign due to a loophole that allowed unlimited spending by so-called ”527 groups” -- not-for-profits that are formally unconnected to candidates' organisations or party apparatus.
In an effort to encourage local television outlets to devote more time to coverage of local races, last week McCain introduced his ”Localism in Broadcasting Reform Act of 2005.”
The proposal would reduce the license term for broadcasters from eight years to three, thereby requiring broadcasters to provide the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) with information every three years on why their license should be renewed.
The bill would also require the FCC to review five percent of all license and renewal applications, and would command broadcasters to post on their Internet sites information detailing their commitment to local public affairs programming.
Other key findings of the USC study include:
- Sixty-four percent of the 4,333 broadcasts captured contained at least one election story. However, a typical half-hour of news contained just three minutes and 11 seconds of campaign coverage. An average campaign story was 86 seconds long, and an average candidate soundbite (which appeared in just 28 percent of the stories) was 12 seconds long.
- Fifty-five percent of the broadcasts captured contained a presidential story. By contrast, just eight percent of those broadcasts contained a story about a local candidate race, which includes campaigns for the U.S. House, state senate or assembly, mayor or city council seat, judgeship, law enforcement posts, education-related offices, and regional and county offices.
- Nineteen percent of the stories focused on voting issues such as the location of polling stations, absentee ballot information and reports on early voting efforts, as well as on national voting issues like potential voting irregularities. Just under five percent of the stories focused on local and statewide ballot initiatives.
- More stories focused on campaign strategy and the horserace (44 percent of the stories captured) than on campaign issues (32 percent).The amount of time given to presidential news coverage was in most cases roughly equivalent to the amount of presidential advertising time, even in markets where the presidential race was competitive.
By contrast, in races for the U.S. Senate, ads outnumbered news by as much as 17-to-one, and in U.S. House races by as much as seven-to-one.
The findings were based on an analysis of evening news broadcasts aired between 5:00 p.m. and 11:30 p.m. by 44 affiliates of ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC in 11 markets during the 29-day period from Oct. 4 to Nov. 1, 2004.
The markets examined were New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Dallas, Seattle, Miami, Denver, Orlando, Tampa, Dayton and Des Moines. Together, they account for 23 percent of all television viewers in the country.
The study also looked at local political news on Spanish-language television stations in Los Angeles, New York City and Miami. On average, these stations did even worse than English-language stations. English-language stations averaged more campaign stories, longer campaign stories and contained more candidate soundbites than Spanish-language stations.
”Last summer, Senator McCain and (former) FCC Chairman Michael Powell challenged America's broadcasters to live up to the promise in their licenses to provide significant coverage of local races,” said Martin Kaplan, associate dean of the Annenberg School and director of the Norman Lear Centre.
”Based on our findings, it looks like that challenge pretty much fell on deaf ears. Coverage of local politics on local news is an endangered species.”
”There are stations that do a good job covering campaigns and local politics, but often they do it despite murderous pressures for ratings and the assumption that audiences are turned off by public affairs programming,” he told IPS. ”It takes real leadership from news directors and station managers to overcome those odds.” He told
Experts say a number of factors contribute to the poor showing of local television.
Unfortunately, viewers seem to prefer accidents, fires and murders to politics; news staffs and budgets of local TV stations have been shrinking for the past few years; and increased media concentration has made it possible for news to be fed to local stations from a central source, usually the owner of a chain of television stations.
Copyright © 2005 IPS-Inter Press Service