UNITED NATIONS - No country can justify torture, the
humiliation of prisoners or violation of international conventions in the
guise of fighting terrorism, says a U.N. report released here.
The 19-page study, which is likely to go before the current session of the
U.N. General Assembly in December, does not identify the United States by
name but catalogues the widely publicized torture and humiliation of
prisoners and detainees in Iraq and Afghanistan by U.S. troops waging the
so-called ”war on terrorism.”
The hard line taken by the United Nations comes amidst the controversial
appointment of a new U.S. attorney general, who has implicitly defended the
use of torture against ''terrorists'' and ''terror suspects''.
Bush is thumbing his nose at the international community and all those
who respect human rights by nominating Gonzales.
You cannot simply up and bolt from the Geneva Conventions and the
Anti-Torture Convention. Gonzales is Ashcroft without the edges and the
delirium and the baritone. But the policy will remain the same.
Matt Rothschild, editor of 'The Progressive' magazine
On Wednesday, U.S. President George W Bush named White House legal counsel
Alberto Gonzales as attorney general to succeed John Ashcroft, who
announced his resignation last week.
In a now-infamous memo to the White House in January 2002, Gonzales argued
that captured members of the former ruling Taliban regime in Afghanistan
were not protected under the Geneva Conventions, which stipulate the
treatment of prisoners of war (POWs). The United States has signed the
The same policy was applied to prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad
who were tortured and humiliated by U.S. troops following the U.S.-led
invasion of Iraq in March 2003, raising outrage among human rights
activists and other people worldwide.
The U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command is now prosecuting several
U.S. soldiers on criminal charges, including involuntary manslaughter, for
their treatment of prisoners.
Gonzales has also described international conventions governing prisoners
of war, including the Geneva Conventions, as ''obsolete.''
According to the author of the 19-page U.N. report, 'Torture, and other
Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment', ''The condoning of
torture is, per se, a violation of the prohibition of torture.”
The study, by U.N. Special Rapporteur on Human Rights Theo van Boven,
points out that ''legal argument of necessity and self-defense, invoking
domestic law, have recently been put forward, aimed at providing a
justification to exempt officials suspected of having committed or
instigated acts of torture against suspected terrorists from criminal
But, Van Boven says, ''the absolute nature of the prohibition of torture
and other forms of ill-treatment means that no exceptional circumstances
whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political
instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as justification
Von Boven said he has received information ''on certain methods that have
been condoned and used to secure information from suspected terrorists.''
He says these include, ''holding detainees in painful and-or stressful
positions, depriving them of sleep and light for prolonged periods,
exposing them to extremes of heat, cold, noise and light, hooding,
depriving them of clothing, stripping detainees naked and threatening them
''The jurisprudence of both international and regional human rights
mechanisms is unanimous in stating that such methods violate the
prohibition of torture and ill-treatment,'' Von Boven adds.
In the aftermath of the Sep. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United
States, he says, ''thousands of persons suspected of terrorism, including
children, have been detained, denied the opportunity to have legal status
determined and prevented from having access to lawyers.''
Some of them, he adds, are said to be still held in solitary confinement,
''which in itself may constitute a violation of the right to be free from
Asked if he supports a call by Amnesty International for an independent
commission to probe U.S. detention policies in Iraq and Afghanistan, Van
Boven told reporters in October that such a probe is imperative.
''Whenever there are serious allegations of torture, investigations are
absolutely necessary. And the results of these investigations should be
made public because it's absolutely a public affair,'' said the special
In view of the U.N. position, the appointment of Gonzales as the new U.S.
attorney general is a slap in the face of the international community, says
Matt Rothschild, editor of 'The Progressive' magazine.
''Bush is thumbing his nose at the international community and all those
who respect human rights by nominating Gonzales,'' Rothschild told IPS.
''You cannot simply up and bolt from the Geneva Conventions and the
Anti-Torture Convention. Gonzales is Ashcroft without the edges and the
delirium and the baritone. But the policy will remain the same,'' he added.
''It was Gonzales, along with Ashcroft and (Defense Secretary Donald)
Rumsfeld and (Vice President Dick) Cheney, who signed off on tougher
interrogation methods and on the hiding of prisoners from the International
Red Cross,'' said Rothschild.
According to Francis A Boyle, who teaches international law at the
University of Illinois, ''As White House counsel, Alberto Gonzales
originated, authorized, approved and aided and abetted grave breaches of
the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions of 1949, which are serious war
''In other words, Gonzales is a prima facie war criminal. He must be
prosecuted under the Geneva Conventions and the U.S. War Crimes Act,''
Boyle told IPS.
In any event, the U.S. Senate must reject his nomination, because, as a
presumptive war criminal, Gonzales is not fit to be attorney general of the
United States, he continued.
''Should Gonzales travel around the world in that capacity, human rights
lawyers such as myself will attempt to get him prosecuted along the lines
of what happened to (former Chilean dictator) General (Pinochet,'' said
Boyle, author of 'Destroying World Order'.
Jordan J Paust, law foundation professor at the University of Houston,
agrees with Boyle's thesis.
''The denial of protections under the Geneva Conventions is a violation of
the Geneva Conventions, and every violation of the laws of war is a war
crime. Complicity in connection with war crimes (such as aiding and
abetting the denial of protections) is also criminally sanctionable,''
Paust told IPS.
Thus, it appears Gonzales is reasonably accused of international criminal
activity, he added, although he has the human right to be presumed innocent
until proven guilty in a court of law that provides basic human rights to
due process protections, ”that he chose to deny others with respect to the
military commissions at Guantanamo Bay” (where Washington detains terror
''Whether or not Gonzales is guilty, the taint in this instance is surely
enough to require that he not be confirmed in any U.S. governmental
position, especially since the Bush administration has stated that it is
still the policy of the United States to have a government under law and to
promote the rule of law and human rights -- rights that are reflected also
in the Geneva Conventions,'' Paust added.
''Making Alberto Gonzales the attorney general of the United States would
be a travesty,'' says Michael Ratner, president of the Center for
''It would mean taking one of the legal architects of an illegal and
immoral policy and installing him as the official who is charged with
protecting our constitutional rights. The Gonzales memo paved the way for
Abu Ghraib,'' Ratner said in a statement issued Thursday.