President Bush's case against Saddam Hussein, outlined in a televised address
to the nation on Monday night, relied on a slanted and sometimes entirely false
reading of the available US intelligence, government officials and analysts claimed
Officials in the CIA, FBI and energy department are being put under intense
pressure to produce reports which back the administration's line, the Guardian
has learned. In response, some are complying, some are resisting and some are
choosing to remain silent.
"Basically, cooked information is working its way into high-level pronouncements
and there's a lot of unhappiness about it in intelligence, especially among analysts
at the CIA," said Vincent Cannistraro, the CIA's former head of counter-intelligence.
In his address, the president reassured Americans that military action was
not "imminent or unavoidable", but he made the most detailed case to date for
the use of force, should it become necessary.
But some of the key allegations against the Iraqi regime were not supported
by intelligence currently available to the administration. Mr Bush repeated a
claim already made by senior members of his administration that Iraq has attempted
to import hardened aluminum tubes "for gas centrifuges, which are used to enrich
uranium for nuclear weapons". The tubes were also mentioned by Tony Blair in his
dossier of evidence presented to parliament last month.
However, US government experts on nuclear weapons and centrifuges have suggested
that they were more likely to be used for making conventional weapons.
"I would just say there is not much support for that [nuclear] theory
around here," said a department of energy specialist.
David Albright, a physicist and former UN weapons inspector who was consulted
on the purpose of the aluminum tubes, said it was far from clear that the tubes
were intended for a uranium centrifuge.
Mr Albright, who heads the Institute for Science and International Security,
a Washington thinktank, said: "There's a catfight going on about this right now.
On one side you have most of the experts on gas centrifuges. On the other you
have one guy sitting in the CIA."
Mr Albright said skeptics at the energy department's Lawrence Livermore national
laboratory in California had been ordered to keep their doubts to themselves.
He quoted a colleague at the laboratory as saying: "The administration can say
what it wants and we are expected to remain silent."
There is already considerable skepticism among US intelligence officials about
Mr Bush's claims of links between Iraq and al-Qaida. In his speech on Monday,
Mr Bush referred to a "very senior al-Qaida leader who received medical treatment
in Baghdad this year".
An intelligence source said the man the president was referring to was Abu
Musab Zarqawi, who was arrested in Jordan in 2001 for his part in the "millennium
plot" to bomb tourist sites there. He was subsequently released and eventually
made his way to Iraq in search of treatment. However, intercepted telephone calls
did not mention any cooperation with the Iraqi government.
There is also profound skepticism among US intelligence experts about the president's
claim that "Iraq has trained al-Qaida members in bomb-making and poisons and deadly
Bob Baer, a former CIA agent who tracked al-Qaida's rise, said that there were
contacts between Osama bin Laden and the Iraqi government in Sudan in the early
1990s and in 1998: "But there is no evidence that a strategic partnership came
out of it. I'm unaware of any evidence of Saddam pursuing terrorism against the
A source familiar with the September 11 investigation said: "The FBI has been
pounded on to make this link."
In making his case on Monday, Mr Bush made a startling claim that the Iraqi
regime was developing drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which "could
be used to disperse chemical or biological weapons across broad areas".
"We're concerned that Iraq is exploring ways of using these UAVs for missions
targeting the United States," he warned.
US military experts confirmed that Iraq had been converting eastern European
trainer jets, known as L-29s, into drones, but said that with a maximum range
of a few hundred miles they were no threat to targets in the US.
"It doesn't make any sense to me if he meant United States territory," said
Stephen Baker, a retired US navy rear admiral who assesses Iraqi military capabilities
at the Washington-based Center for Defense Information.
Mr Cannistraro said the flow of intelligence to the top levels of the administration
had been deliberately skewed by hawks at the Pentagon.
"CIA assessments are being put aside by the Defense department in favor of
intelligence they are getting from various Iraqi exiles," he said. "Machiavelli
warned princes against listening to exiles. Well, that is what is happening now."
© Guardian Newspapers Limited 2002